Accounting for the ‘Little Divergence’

This blog post was written by
AlexandraM. de Pleijt,
post doc at Utrecht University

What drove economic growth in pre-industrial Europe, 1300-1800? 


The Industrial Revolution is arguably the most important break in global economic history, separating a world of at best very modest improvements in real incomes from the period of ‘modern economic growth’. Thanks to pioneering work of van Leeuwen and van Zanden (2012) and Broadberry et al (2015) this phenomenon has recently been linked to the study of long-term trends in per capita GDP. One of the questions is to what extent growth before 1750 helps to explain the break that occurs after that date; the idea of a ‘Little Divergence’ within Europe has been suggested as part of the explanation why the Industrial Revolution occurred in this part of the world. 

This ‘Little Divergence’ is the process whereby the North Sea Area (the UK and the Low Countries) developed into the most prosperous and dynamic part of the Continent. The new series on per capita GDP demonstrate that the Low Countries and England witnessed almost continuous growth between the 14th and the 18th century, whereas in other parts of the continent real incomes went down in the long run (Italy), or stagnated at best (Portugal, Spain, Germany, Sweden and Poland) (see Figure 1). As a consequence, at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 1750s, the level of GDP per capita of Holland and England had increased to 2355 and 1666 (international) dollars of 1990 respectively, compared to 876 and 919 dollar in 1347 (just before the arrival of the Black Death), and 1454 and 1134 in 1500 (Bolt and van Zanden 2014). 


Gross Domestic Product per capita, 1300-1800. 
Notes and sources: See Bolt and van Zanden (2014)


Although the ‘Little Divergence’ between the North Sea area and the rest of the continent has been established, very little is known about the causes of this phase of pre-industrial growth. Why were the Low Countries and England already long before 1800 able to break through Malthusian constraints and generate a process of almost continuous economic growth? Various hypotheses have been suggested. One of the explanations focuses on institutional changes. The rise of socio-political institutions (in particular the rise of active parliaments) and demographic institutions (notably the European Marriage Pattern) were favourable for growth in the Low Countries and England (de Moor and van Zanden 2010, van Zanden et al 2012). Other scholars have stressed the importance of the growth of overseas (e.g. Acemoglu et al 2005) – a hypothesis which is supported by Allen’s (2003) study explaining differences in real wages in Europe between 1300 and 1800. Finally, others have indicated the importance of increases in agricultural productivity (Overton 1996) and human capital formation (Baten and van Zanden 2008).

In a new EHES working paper paper, we have tested the various hypotheses explaining pre-industrial growth in early modern Europe using new data on per capita GDP, political institutions (active parliaments), human capital formation (per capita book consumption), productivity in agriculture (yield ratio’s), and international trade (per capita size of the merchant fleet). Our empirical findings show that GDP growth before the Industrial Revolution was mainly driven by human capital formation. We moreover show that institutional changes (the rise of active Parliaments) were closely related to pre-industrial growth.


The working paper can be downloaded here: http://www.ehes.org/EHES_104.pdf
References:

Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson. “The Rise of Europe: Atlantic Trade, Institutional Change and Growth.” American Economic Review 95, no. 3 (2005): 546-79.
Allen, Robert C. “Progress and Poverty in Early Modern Europe.” Economic History Review LVI, no. 3 (2003): 403-43.
Baten, Joerg, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “Book Production and the Onset of Modern Economic Growth.” Journal of Economic Growth13, no. 3 (2008): 217-35.
Bolt, Jutta, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “The Maddison Project: collaborative research on
historical national accounts.” Economic History Review 67, no. 3 (2014): 627-51.
Broadberry, Stephen N., Bruce Campbell, Alex Klein, Mark Overton, and Bas van Leeuwen. British Economic Growth, 1270-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015
De Moor, Tine, and Jan Luiten van Zanden. “Girl Power: The European Marriage Pattern and Labour Markets in the North Sea Region in the Late Medieval and Early Modern Period.” Economic History Review 63, no. 1 (2010a): 1-33.
Overton, Mark. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500-1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Van Zanden, Jan Luiten, and Bas van Leeuwen. “Persistent but not Consistent: The Growth of National Income in Holland, 1347-1807.” Explorations in Economic History 49, no. 2 (2012): 119-30.
Van Zanden, Jan Luiten, Eltjo Buringh, and Maarten Bosker. “The Rise and Decline of European Parliaments, 1188-1789.” Economic History Review 65, no. 3 (2012): 835-61.

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conradi.dimitrij@bk.ru
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Dimitrij Conradi

We are Providers of all types of BG and SBLC with the best workable procedures. Our BG/SBLC ranges from MT799, MT760,(Both two way confirmation), MT103/23, MT103 (Both can be one way confirmation and two way confirmation) in USD and EUROS. Issuing Bank ranges from Top world 25 banks with face value ranging from 1M EUROS/USD to 10B EUROS/USD

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Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and cases to our attention and in complete confidence we will work together for the benefits of all parties involve.

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Email: dimi.conradi1970@gmail.com
conradi.dimitrij@bk.ru
Skype: conradi.dimitrij@bk.ru
WhatsApp: +90 552 674 4696

asda services

Bitcoin Crypto Investment
My investment experience with bitcoins. 
There is no doubt that bitcoin is a trend today and there is a lot of success in the business world, because people prefer to save money in their wallets than in banks, last summer I lost about $54,000 due to the fall in the price of bitcoins. A colleague at work who knew my suffering in the field of bitcoin savings led me (aulakhkrupinder@gmail.com   ) where I can store and invest my bitcoins with more than 100% profit margin. At first I was skeptical, so I decided to try it for just $500. I was amazed after 12 hours I made another $1,500 and was able to make an immediate withdrawal and since then I have invested and made more money. Investing bitcoins with aulakhkrupinder@gmail.com   changed my life when I made more than $176,000. You can contact :aulakhkrupinder@gmail.com  to Enjoy endless possibilities.

ELSA

Hackers with the above email (perrythomas827@gmail.com) its at it again! Cool way to have financial freedom!!! Are you tired of living a poor life, here is the opportunity you have been waiting for. Get the new ATM BLANK CARD that can hack any ATM MACHINE and withdraw money from any account. You do not require anybody’s account number before you can use it. Although you and I knows that its illegal,there is no risk using it. It has SPECIAL FEATURES, that makes the machine unable to detect this very card,and its transaction is can’t be traced .You can use it anywhere in the world. With this card,you can withdraw the sum of $5,000 a day. So to get the card,reach the hackers via email address : perrythomas827@gmail.com..please don’t contact him if you are not serious minded

CONTACT: PERRY at perrythomas827@gmail.com TO GET YOURS NOW…

scott james

GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY/LEASE
AT THE BEST RATES AVAILABLE

We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.

FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%

FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
PRICE = 32%+2%
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M

Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing by providing you with yearly. RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days

Name : Scott james

Email : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
Skype: Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

Sekaran00

We are specialist in providing direct and genuine provider of BG, SBLC, MTN, CD, LC , DLC, Non collateral loan, confirmable Bank Draft and other financial assistance from AAA rated bank (Prime Bank) our Leasing price of (5.0% + 0.5% + X) of face value of the instrument. The financial instrument can be invested in High Yield Trading Program or Private Placement Programme (PPP). thus our Bank Guarantee lease , the Direct Bank Guarantee and Indirect Bank Guarantee, which is used as Bid Bond, Payment Guarantees, Letter of Indemnity,Guarantee Securing Credit Line, Advance Payment Guarantees, Performance Bond Guarantee E.T.C.

We are RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days, we deliver promptly as set forth by our agreement. we have direct contact with the principal, mandate and brokers. we ensure unequaled service and will be glad to share our working procedures with you upon request to help us proceed towards closing deals effectively.

For further inquiry contact
Name: Sekaran Sebastian
E-mail: bglease.sekaran@gmail.com
Skype ID: bglease.sekaran@outlook.com

Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

Samri nazeer

We have direct and efficient providers of Bank Guarantee (BG’s), Insurance Guarantees,Confirmable Bank Drafts, Standby Letters of Credit (SBLC) medium term note (MTN) and Third Party Guarantees. which are specifically for sell/lease at leasing price of 4+2% /32+2% for selling price.
If you are a potential Investor or principal looking to raise capital, we will be happy to answer any questions that you have about this opportunity and to provide you with details regarding these services.

Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, by providing you with yearly renewable leased bank instruments. We work directly with the providers of these instruments.

DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:

1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG) or Standby Letter of Credit (SBLC)
2. Total Face Value: Euro/USD 100,000.00 – Euro/USD 50,000,000,000.00
3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Barclays Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt etc.
4. Age: One Year and One Day (With the option of Rolls and Extension)
5. Leasing Fee: 4% + 2% [negociable]
6. Delivery: Bank to Bank Swift MT799 and/or MT760
7. Payment: MT103
8. Hard Copy: By Bank Bonded Courier within 7 banking days after delivery of Swift.  

Contact: Name: SAMRI NAZEER

Email: INFO.ACEFINANCELTD@GMAIL.COM  
Skype:INFO.ACEFINANCELTD@GMAIL.COM

Fady Marcel

GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE(BG) LETTER OF CREDIT(LC) BUSINESS LOAN AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC)
AT THE BEST RATES AVAILABLE

We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.

FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M-10B
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%

FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
PRICE = 32%+2%
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M-10B

MONETIZATION LTV 70%

LOAN INTEREST RATE:3% OF THE TOTAL FACE AMOUNT

Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing by providing you with yearly. we ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
Email : financeandstrategyltd@gmail.com

Alex James

I am direct to a provider who has recently issued banking instruments for a couple of my clients the provider is 100% check-able you can do your due diligence on them. I work directly with the provider.

We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.

FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%

FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
PRICE = 32%+2%
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M

Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, loan financing by providing you with yearly. RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days

Contact Name: Alex James
Email:signetukfinanceplc@gmail.com
SKYPE:signetukfinanceplc@hotmail.com

Unknown

Do you need an urgent loan of any kind? Loans to liquidate debts or need to loan to improve your business have you been rejected by any other banks and financial institutions? Do you need a loan or a mortgage? This is the place to look, we are here to solve all your financial problems. We borrow money for the public. Need financial help with a bad credit in need of money. To pay for a commercial investment at a reasonable rate of 3%, let me use this method to inform you that we are providing reliable and helpful assistance and we will be ready to lend you. Contact us today by email: daveloganloanfirm@gmail.com Call/Text: +1(501)800-0690 And whatsapp: +1 (315) 640-3560

NEED A LOAN?
Ask Me.

TANG ADAM

We offer Cash & Asset Backed Financial Instruments such as Bank Guarantee and Standby Letter of Credit (BG/SBLC) for lease and sale, and loan facilities. We offer Verifiable Bank Instruments via SWIFT from genuine providers capable of taking up time bound transactions. Issuance is by AA rated Bank in Europe, Middle East, Asia and USA.

Our Instruments are easily monetized on your behalf for project funding. Our rates depend on the face value of the instrument needed, we can also monetize the same BG/SBLC for up to 100% cash proceeds if you do not have a monetizer.

Please contact me for full details:

Email: inquiry.trustedfinance@gmail.com

Skype : inquiry.trustedfinance@gmail.com

Name: GARVAN MAIREAD

Whatsapp : +15137819374

scott james

(BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
Dear Sir/Ma,
We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.
FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
PRICE = 32%+2%
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
loan financing by providing you with yearly.
RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
Name : Scott james
Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
Skype : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

scott james

(BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
Dear Sir/Ma,
We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.
FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
PRICE = 32%+2%
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
loan financing by providing you with yearly.
RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
Name : Scott james
Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
Skype : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

ELSA

I got my already programmed and blank ATM card to
withdraw the maximum of $100,000 MONTHLY for a maximum of 12 MONTHS. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $400,000 already. (perrythomas827@gmail.com) is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal but it is something nice and he is not like other scam pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. Get yours from THOMAS PERRY Hackerz today! Just send an email to (perrythomas827@gmail.com)

Belinda Woods

Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.

Fast funding: quick funding decisions and set-up
Hassle free experience: easy to use digital interface
Help in real-time: personal customer support
Straightforward costs: no hidden fees
Simple approval process
Low Interest rate of 2%
No credit checks/collateral required
Bad credit accepted
Flexible repayment schedules
Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
Loan Duration from 1 year – 20 years maximum
Grace period of 12 – 24 months

Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.

Hordle Finance B.V
Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
Tel: +44 2038-076-070
Whatsapp: +44 7901-191-353
ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
Company Registration No. FC029166

Belinda Woods

Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.

Fast funding: quick funding decisions and set-up
Hassle free experience: easy to use digital interface
Help in real-time: personal customer support
Straightforward costs: no hidden fees
Simple approval process
Low Interest rate of 2%
No credit checks/collateral required
Bad credit accepted
Flexible repayment schedules
Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
Loan Duration from 1 year – 20 years maximum
Grace period of 12 – 24 months

Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.

Hordle Finance B.V
Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
Tel: +44 2038-076-070
Whatsapp: +44 7901-191-353
ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
Company Registration No. FC029166

Belinda Woods

Hordle Finance B.V (UK) Limited provides personal loans/business loans/trade finance/import & export loans/project loans to companies of all sizes ranging from individuals, companies and trader's globally. Just one simple process, We make financing your business growth simple, transparent, and fair.

Fast funding: quick funding decisions and set-up
Hassle free experience: easy to use digital interface
Help in real-time: personal customer support
Straightforward costs: no hidden fees
Simple approval process
Low Interest rate of 2%
No credit checks/collateral required
Bad credit accepted
Flexible repayment schedules
Client information sheet & KYC required for all loan applicant irrespective of location/country
Loan Duration from 1 year – 20 years maximum
Grace period of 12 – 24 months

Simple paperwork, quick approvals, and flexible repayment schedules. For further details, contact us via email, telephone, Skype. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome onboard bring their clients and work with us and are 100% protected adequately protected. In complete confidence, We shall work together for the benefits of all parties involved, Looking forward to rendering the best of our services to all esteemed clientele globally.

Hordle Finance B.V
Website: https://www.hordlefinance.com/
Email: finance@hordlefinance.com
Tel: +44 2038-076-070
Whatsapp: +44 7901-191-353
ONE BANK STREET, CANARY WHARF,
41 Tower Hill, LONDON, GB-LND E14 4SG
Company Registration No. FC029166

Annissa Azucena

Email: int.hackers002@gmail.com
WhatsApp: +1(765) 705-0044
-hack into any kind of phone
_Increase Credit Scores
_western union, bitcoin and money gram hacking
_criminal records deletion_BLANK ATM/CREDIT CARDS
_Hacking of phones(that of your spouse, boss, friends, and see whatever is being discussed behind your back)
_Security system hacking…and so much more. Contact THEM now and get whatever you want at

Prices for clone cards with their balance that we offer:

* Gold VISA- € 450 —-> Balance € 250,000 Daily withdrawal of € 1,500, validity 24 months

* Gold Mastercard- € 1,500 — -> Balance € 325,000 Daily withdrawal of € 1,800, validity 36 months

* Platinum Visa – € 3,550 —-> Balance € 480,000 Daily withdrawal of € 2,000, validity 24 months

* Platinum Mastercard – € 5,600 —-> Balance € 620,000 Daily withdrawal of € 2,500, validity 36 months

* Infinity Visa – € 10,000 —-> Balance € 750,000 Daily withdrawal of € 3,000, validity 24 months

* Infinity Mastercard – 20,000€ —-> Balance 850,000 € Daily withdrawal of 3500 €, validity 36 months

Once payment has been made 12h to 48h in Europe and 12h to 72H worldwide
After your order will be available, at the delivery address given.
Shipping is by courier with parcel tracking within 2hrs after payment

If you order regularly with us, we guarantee that you will not miss anything in the near future.

Email: int.hackers002@gmail.com
WhatsApp: +1(765) 705-0044

WilsonTradesZone

if you are in financial difficulties or you find it difficult to clear all your bills or you are in big debt because of scammers, now is the time to put an end to all this happenings in your life,we want to introduce you to a real and legit bitcoin investment platform where you can earn 10 times your invested funds weekly and profit are 100% guaranteed for example you invest 1000 Euros we are capable to earn 10,000 Euros for you in 7 days. Interested Viewers should contact us via whats-app: +27633586789 or email: wilsontradeszone@gmail.com to get started

scott james

GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
Dear Sir/Ma,
We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.
FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
PRICE = 32%+2%
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
loan financing by providing you with yearly.
RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
Name : Scott james
Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
Skype : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

scott james

GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
Dear Sir/Ma,
We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.
FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
PRICE = 32%+2%
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
loan financing by providing you with yearly.
RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
Name : Scott james
Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
Skype : Inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

Paul David

We are direct providers of Fresh Cut BG, SBLC and MTN which are specifically for lease/sales, our bank instrument can be engage in PPP Trading, Discounting, signature project(s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication, construction of Dams, Bridges, Real Estate and all kind of projects. We do not have any broker chain in our offer or get involved in chauffeur driven offers. We deliver with time and precision as sethforth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable, below is our instrument description. The procedure is very simple; the instrument will be reserved on euro clear to be verified by your bank, after verification an arrangement will be made for necessary bank documents and stock testing expenses, the cost of the Bank Guarantee/Standby Letter of Credit will be paid after the delivery of the MT760, Description OF INSTRUMENTS: 1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC) 2. Total Face Value: Eur/USD 5M MIN and Eur/USD 10B MAX (Ten Billion EURO/USD). 3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Barclay's bank London,Credit Suisse and Deutsche Bank Frankfurt. 4. Age: One Year, One Month 5. Purchasing Price: 32% of face value plus 2% commission fees Leasing Price: 4% of Face Value plus 1% commission fees. 6. Delivery: Bank to Bank swift. 7. Payment: MT-103 or MT760 8. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days. We are ready to close leasing/Buying with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me Name : PAUL DAVID Email: pauldavid20001@gmail.com Skype: P_david123@outlook.com whatsapp:+447921551354

scott james

GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.
FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
PRICE = 32%+2%
Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
loan financing by providing you with yearly.
RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
Name : scott james
Email : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com
Skype : inquiry.securedfunding@gmail.com

Dr, Benjamin Owen

DO YOU NEED A PERSONAL/BUSINESS/INVESTMENT LOAN? CONTACT US TODAY VIA WhatsApp +19292227023 Email drbenjaminfinance@gmail.com

HELLO
Loan Offer Alert For Everyone! Are you financially down and you need an urgent credit/financial assistance? Or are you in need of a loan to start-up/increase your business or buy your dream house. GET YOUR INSTANT LOAN APPROVAL 100% GUARANTEED TODAY NO MATTER YOUR CREDIT SCORE. WhatsApp:+19292227023 Email: drbenjaminfinance@gmail.com

Unknown

Do you need an urgent loan of any kind? Loans to liquidate debts or need to loan to improve your business have you been rejected by any other banks and financial institutions? Do you need a loan or a mortgage? This is the place to look, we are here to solve all your financial problems. We borrow money for the public. Need financial help with a bad credit in need of money. To pay for a commercial investment at a reasonable rate of 3%, let me use this method to inform you that we are providing reliable and helpful assistance and we will be ready to lend you. Contact us today by email: daveloganloanfirm@gmail.com Call/Text: +1(501)800-0690 And whatsapp: +1 (501) 214‑1395

NEED A LOAN?
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Nora Owen

Are you having a very low FICO score, and are desperate for a perfect and urgent fix? I confidently recommend CYBER CREDIT GURU. They cleared all negatives, late payments and collections from my credit report and boosted my FICO score from 505 to 800 excellent score, across all three bureaus within four days. CYBER CREDIT GURU does a very neat and perfect job without leaving any form of trace behind. You can give them a trial today and I bet you will never regret it. Contact: CYBERCREDITGURU (AT) GMAIL DOT COM or phone/text: +1 (650) 239 7249

Unknown

GENUINE BANK GUARANTEE (BG) AND STANDBY LETTER OF CREDIT (SBLC) FOR BUY OR LEASE AT THE BEST AVAILABLE RATES
We offer certified and verifiable financial bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable
of taking up time bound transactions.
FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
LEASING FEE = 4%+2%
FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
PRICE = 32%+2%
Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded,
loan financing by providing you with yearly.
RWA ready to close leasing with any interested client in few banking days
I will be glad to share with you our working procedures.
Name : Thomas Wolfgang
Email : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com
Skype : inquiry.fastfunding@gmail.com

Solution

GET OUT OF FINANCIAL MESS WITH THE HELP OF drbenjaminfinance@gmail.com

I have been in financial mess for the past months, I’m a single mum with kids to look after. My name is REBECCA MICHAELSON, and am from Ridley Park, Pennsylvania. A couple of weeks ago My friend visited me and along our discussion she told me about DR BENJAMIN OWEN FINANCE of (drbenjaminfinance@gmail.com); that he can help me out of my financial situation, I never believed cause I have spend so much money on different loan lenders who did nothing other than running away with my money. She advised, I gave it a try because she and some of her colleagues were rescued too by this Godsent lender with loans to revive their dying businesses and paying off bills. so I mailed him and explain all about my financial situation and therefore took me through the loan process which was very brief and easy. After that my loan application worth $278,000.00USD was granted, all i did was to follow the processing and be cooperative and today I am a proud business owner sharing the testimony of God-sent Lender. You can as well reach him through the Company WhatsApp +19292227023 Email drbenjaminfinance@gmail.com

WE OFFER ALL KIND OF LOANS - APPLY FOR AFFORDABLE LOANS

Do you need a quick long or short term Loan with a relatively low interest rate as low as 3%? We offer business Loan, personal Loan, home Loan, auto Loan, student Loan, debt consolidation Loan etc.. no matter your credit score.
Personal Loans (Secure and Unsecured)
Business Loans (Secure and Unsecured)
Consolidation Loan and many more.

Contact US for more information about Loan offer and we will solve your
financial problem. contact us via email: muthooth.finance@gmail.com
Phone number: +917428831341 (Call/What's app)

Bank Instrument

My name is Mohammed Ahsan I'm a financial Consultant of a reputable firm Operating out of the United Kingdom
we provide Discrete Financial, Services for High Net Worth CEO's/Executives of Corporation & Senior Government Officials globally.
What we do is Legal & within the ambit of the law but following the Leakage of the Infamous United Kingdom
Papers & subsequent threat by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ)
International Criminal Court (ICC)
Below is what my Sender can offer.
1, MT103 gpi automatic
2, MT103 wire transfer
3, MT103 TT
4, MT103/202 manual download
5, SBLC lease and Purchase

All bank instrument will be done via bank officer to bank officer, Receiver has to provide bank officer details
on DOA all brokers are welcome and guarantee of there payment after successful deal
kindly send me a message via email and WhatsApp.

Email: mohammedahsan877@gmail.com

WhatsApp- +19893413179

Samri nazeer

We have direct and efficient providers of Bank Guarantee (BG’s), Insurance Guarantees,Confirmable Bank Drafts, Standby Letters of Credit (SBLC) medium term note (MTN) and Third Party Guarantees. which are specifically for sell/lease at leasing price of 4+2% /32+2% for selling price.
If you are a potential Investor or principal looking to raise capital, we will be happy to answer any questions that you have about this opportunity and to provide you with details regarding these services.

Our BG/SBLC Financing can help you get your project funded, by providing you with yearly renewable leased bank instruments. We work directly with the providers of these instruments.

DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS:

1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG) or Standby Letter of Credit (SBLC)
2. Total Face Value: Euro/USD 100,000.00 – Euro/USD 50,000,000,000.00
3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Barclays Bank London, Deutsche Bank AG Frankfurt etc.
4. Age: One Year and One Day (With the option of Rolls and Extension)
5. Leasing Fee: 4% + 2% [negociable]
6. Delivery: Bank to Bank Swift MT799 and/or MT760
7. Payment: MT103
8. Hard Copy: By Bank Bonded Courier within 7 banking days after delivery of Swift.

Contact: Name: SAMRI NAZEER

Email: INFO.ACEFINANCELTD@GMAIL.COM
Skype:INFO.ACEFINANCELTD@GMAIL.COM
WhatsApp:+14079068560

PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMMERS(FLIP)

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Lisa walkman

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Unknown

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Unknown

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We are Direct Provider of BG (Bank Guarantee),SBLC (Standby Letter of Credit) for lease and purchase.Offer is open to both individuals and corporate bodies.

Our Services

Bank Guarantee (BG)
Standby Letter of Credit (SBLC)
SWIFT MT 799 MT 760 Bank Guarantee (SBLC)
SBLC BG Monetization.
Issuance by top AA rated Bank

Lease fee 4 + 2
Purchase fee 32 + 2

Contact Us:Email :

We are Direct Provider of BG (Bank Guarantee),SBLC (Standby Letter of Credit) for lease and purchase.Offer is open to both individuals and corporate bodies.

Our Services

Bank Guarantee (BG)
Standby Letter of Credit (SBLC)
SWIFT MT 799 MT 760 Bank Guarantee (SBLC)
SBLC BG Monetization.
Issuance by top AA rated Bank

Lease fee 4 + 2
Purchase fee 32 + 2

Contact Us:Email : jeffhills315@gmail.com

WhatsApp Only:+447137182232

Name Mr Jeff Hills

WhatsApp Only:+447137182232

Name Mr Jeff Hills

Terru

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Hello,

We Offer Swift MT760 BG/SBLC, FC MTN, Letter of Credit { LC }, MT103Etc.

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Thanks
Name:Jerry Osborne
Email:osbornej715@gmail.com
Skype:osbornejerry123@outlook.com

Doreen Manuer

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TANG ADAM

We are project funder with our cutting edge and group capital fund we can finance your signatory projects and help you to

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Our financial instrument can be used for purchase of goods from any manufacturer irrespective of location. We specialized

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100% funding.Please see our instrument description as follow.

DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENT:
(1) Instrument: Bank Guarantee {BG} /StandBy Letter of Credit.{SBLC} (Appendix A).
(2) Total Face Value: Eur/USD 1M{Minimum} to Eur/USD 100MNJH{Maximum}.
(3) Issuing Bank: AAA Rated Bank (Prime Bank).
(4) Age: One Year and One Day.
(5) Leasing Price: 4% of Face Value plus 2% commission.
(6) Delivery: bank to bank SWIFT MT-799 and/or MT-760.
(7) Payment: MT103 (TT/WT).
(8) Hard Copy: Bonded Courier Service.

Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we

will work together for the benefits of all parties involved,If in need of our services, contact me for detail

For further inquiry contact:

Email: inquiry.trustedfinanceplc@gmail.com

Skype : inquiry.trustedfinance@gmail.com

Whatsapp : +17329300338

Unknown

Do you need a loan? If yes! Contact FIFO Capitals and Mortgages Limited ® for small and large loans. We give out loans at 2% interest rate. Contact us today via E-mail at,,,(( FIFOCapitals@gmail.com )),,, We also give out from. £5 thousand Pounds to 100 million Pounds for individuals and companies, the credit is open to all regardless of nationality….

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